Tuesday, June 22, 2010

Dengue: A Global Epidemic

Dengue was one of the favorite zootonic germs used in experimental germ-warefare programs all across the world, including the USA;

On Tue, Jun 22, 2010 at 12:35 PM, ProMED-mail wrote:

A ProMED-mail post

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International Society for Infectious Diseases

In this update:
[1] Honduras
[2] Costa Rica
[3] Venezuela (Barinas)
[4] Paraguay
[5] Brazil (Rio de Janeiro)
[6] Cambodia
[7] Philippines (Mountain province)
[8] India (Kerala)

[1] Honduras
Date: Sat 19 Jun 2010
Source: Prensa Latina [in Spanish, trans. Mod.TY, edited]

Honduran health authorities analyzed the possibility to decree a red
alert due to the increase of dengue fever in the nation, in which 10
people have already died among more than 11 000 infected. The
emergency plan is addressed to increase the number of beds in
hospitals, assign more medical personnel, and increase laboratory
capacity for blood tests.

According to Dr Mario Roberto Ramos, head of Internal Medicine at the
Seguro Social Hospital in Tegucigalpa, the wards are already filled
and they are not enough to take in so many patients. "Before, these
cases were coming sporadically, but now, we are receiving 10-15
patients daily," said Dr Ramos.

Public health personnel will request from the Permanent Commission for
Contingencies 10 camp tents with their respective stretchers, to be
installed around the hospitals to take care of patients in stable

Tomas Guevara, head of Epidemiologic Surveillance in the Honduran
Public Health Ministry reported that there is a total of 10 780 cases
of dengue fever in the country, and 461 of them are cases of DHF, with
people under 19 years of age as the main victims.

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing the location of
Honduras in Central America can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[2] Costa Rica
Date: Thu 17 Jun 2010
Source: Prensa Latina [in Spanish, trans. Corr.SB, edited]

The number of patients suffering from dengue fever in Costa Rica rose
to 7324. Health authorities warn that without the cooperation of
citizens it will be impossible to stem the epidemic.

The deputy minister of health, Ana Mourice, said the number of cases
exceeds by 382 percent the number recorded in the 1st half of last
year [2009], and the number of people infected threatens to get larger
by the onset of the rainy season. Similarly, she stressed that the
spraying by the Ministry of Health, to combat the mosquito vector of
the disease [virus] is inadequate if families do not contribute to the
elimination of mosquito breeding sites in their homes. "The mosquito
(_Aedes aegypti_) is having a party with the beginning of winter, as
it has an ally in the accumulation of trash, tires, and containers
where water accumulates," said the official, quoted today [17 Jun
2010] by the digital version of Diario Extra. According to Mourice,
the only way to stop the spread of the epidemic is the commitment of
all people to clean up the places where the insect is breeding.

A few days ago, the deputy minister expressed her concern about the
circulation of the 3 dengue [virus] serotypes present in the national
territory and whose identification cannot be done through clinical
exam, rather by virological studies.

The disease [virus], transmitted by the bite of the _Aedes aegypti_
mosquito, causes high fever, headache and joint pain, and the
hemorrhagic variant can be fatal.

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing the location of Costa
Rica in Central America can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[3] Venezuela (Barinas)
Date: Wed 16 Jun 2010
Source: La Prensa de Barinas [in Spanish trans. Corr.SB, edited]

Dr Seham Yammoul, regional director of health, announced that the
authorities of the Ministry of Health, together with the regional
government, are carrying out a series of actions to cope with diseases
such as dengue that are occurring today as a result of the rains. So
far there have been 68 cases of dengue. He said the authorities were
present to assist families in the communities of Guanape, Caramuca,
Obispos, and Rojas.

He emphasized that ... fumigation is also maintained because there is
the proliferation of mosquitoes and problems with the basic sanitation
in the parish of El Carmen.

Dr Yammoul said that according to the figures used, 68 cases of dengue
have been reported in the last 2 weeks and Barinas is on alert due to

[Byline: Esthela Tamy]

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[An interactive map showing the locations mentioned in Barinas state
can be accessed at
A map showing the states of Venezuela can be accessed at
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Venezuela can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[4] Paraguay
Date: Fri 18 Jun 2010
Source: Portal Paraguayo de Noticias (PPN) [in Spanish, trans.
Corr.SB, edited]

Although the dengue epidemic in Paraguay is declining, the prevention
and vector control measures must continue and, in many cases, increase
because there are high levels of [vector mosquito] larval infestation
in many areas. To date, confirmed cases reached 9874. According to the
latest regional reports, active [virus] circulation of low intensity,
continues in the Departments [state or province equivalent] of Alto
Parana, Central, and Capital.

According to the epidemiological bulletin of the Directorate General
of Health Surveillance of the Ministry of Health, to date total
notifications of suspected dengue cases reported to the surveillance
system reached 19 378 and confirmed cases to 9874. "The epidemic is
considered of great intensity. 28.8 percent of all Health Regions
exceed the rate of 100 cases per 100 000 inhabitants," said the report
(of the General Directorate of Health).

The epidemic, according to the report, continues to decline with a
trend for circulation to be cut in certain regions of the country,
although the (departments of) Alto Parana, Central, and Capital remain
with active circulation of low intensity, according to the latest
regional reports. [The departments of] Alto Paraguay, Boqueron, and
Cordillera record a cut in virus circulation, taking into account that
there have been 3 consecutive weeks without notification of a case
after the last reported case.

On the other hand, the [Health] report indicated that there was
simultaneous circulation of dengue virus (more than one [virus]
serotype) in the departments of Concepcion, San Pedro, Alto Parana,
Central, Amambay, Presidente Hayes, and Capital (Asuncion).

Of the total of confirmed cases, 39.3 percent are young adults,
ranging from 20-39 years, and 16.5 percent are under 15 years of age.
Regarding gender distribution, the highest percentage of confirmed
cases affected women (58 percent).

According to the monitoring of hospitalized patients up to 5 percent
of severe cases of dengue were recorded and 39 percent of patients had
warning signs. The last confirmed [dengue] death was registered in
epidemiological week 19, representing a case fatality rate 0.15
percent (15/9874). The age group most affected was that of 60 years
and older.

Protect your family from dengue and mosquitoes if you have these
symptoms: fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, nausea/vomiting,
skin rash, and/or hemorrhagic manifestations.

As long as you have fever avoid mosquito bites, lay under a mosquito
net or in a room with wire mesh, use insect repellents and insecticide
sprays indoors when mosquitoes are present.

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[A map showing the states of Paraguay can be accessed at
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Paraguay can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[5] Brazil (Rio de Janeiro)
Date: Tue 15 Jun 2010
Source: O Dia [in Portuguese, trans. Mod.TY, edited]

Residents of Itaperuna, a municipality in the northeast of the state
[Rio de Janeiro], are terrified of the increased number of cases of
dengue in the city, already facing an epidemic of the disease. Just in
May [2010] there were 605 patients recorded. In the same month last
year [2009] there were 15. "Many people have dengue. 3 neighbors are
in bed [with it]. It is strange and it is cold," said a retired woman,
aged 60, who had had dengue.

The coordinator of Epidemiological Surveillance of the state
Secretariat of Health, Rita Vassoler, stated that one of the
possibilities which might explain the increase in the number of cases
of the disease in Itaperuna is the introduction of [dengue] virus type
1 or 2. "When a municipality goes for a time without strong
circulation of dengue, it becomes more susceptible [to dengue
outbreaks]. This explains why, when a virus enters [the area], it
encounters more people who are not immune and can become ill," the
physician explained.

According to the Secretariat of Health, despite the increased number
of dengue cases -- there are 1262 reported cases -- Itaperuna has not
recorded a death from the disease. In the state [Rio de Janeiro],
there are now 21 dengue deaths since the beginning of the year [2010].

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[A map showing the location of Itaperuna municipality in the state of
Rio de Janeiro can be accessed at
A map showing the states in Brazil can be accessed at
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Brazil can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[6] Brazil (Piaui)
Date: Tue 15 Jun 2010
Source: Clica Piaui [in Portuguese, trans. & summ. Mod.TY, edited]

According to the latest bulletin released by the FMS [Ministry of
Health], 543 dengue cases were reported this year [2010], 48 of which
are discarded and 495 confirmed after laboratory tests. According to
the bulletin, classical dengue is the predominant type [of disease] in
the Teresina population, and represents almost the total of the 478
reported cases. Up to now, only 2 cases of DHF and 15 of [cases] with
some complication were confirmed, but all properly treated, without
any recorded deaths.

Compared to the same period last year [2009], the municipality has
registered a remarkable decrease in cases; since [the beginning of]
2009 until the beginning of June, there were 1063 recorded [dengue]
cases in Teresina, representing a reduction of at least 54 percent in
2010. The regions of Dirceu Arcoverde, Monte Castelo, Renascenca,
Promorar, Nova Brasilia, Buenos Aires, Sao Joaquim Lourival Parente,
and Mocambinho are most affected by the mosquito _Aedes aegypti_, the
vector of the disease [virus] in this 22nd epidemiological week of 2010.

For the director of epidemiology of FMS, infectious disease physician
Amparo Salmito, the decline in the number of dengue cases in Teresina
has been increasing since 2007, when the FMS started to adopt
pioneering measures to control and fight mosquitoes. "This decline is
due to various factors, mainly the use of adult traps to attract
mosquitoes, among those females of _Aedes aegypti_, that carries the
virus, and aspirators used in areas where the outbreak has been
identified, " she explained.

The result of all these actions, according to Amparo Salmito, is that
last year [2009] Teresina was the only capital city where there were
no reports of epidemic dengue. "And the goal for this year [2010] is
the same," she says. "Therefore, we need to strengthen care and in
this sense, the collaboration of the population is key," emphasized
the infectious disease physician. Other recommendations to combat
dengue fever are: eliminate pools of water, tightly cover water tanks,
barrels, and drums used for water storage. The mosquito also breeds in
glasses, pots, plates, tires, tanks, tanks, bottles, cans, pots, roof
gutters, basins, and containers of water for animals.

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[An interactive map showing the location of Teresina in Piaui state
can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[6] Cambodia
Date: Thu 17 Jun 2010
Source: The Phnom Penh Post [edited]

The total number of dengue fever cases recorded in the 1st 5 months of
the year [2010] was less than half the one recorded during the same
period last year [2009], but the number of deaths held steady at 7,
Health Ministry officials said Wednesday [16 Jun 2010].

Ngan Chantha, director of the National Anti-Dengue Programme at the
Ministry of Health, said there were 1111 cases of dengue fever between
January and May [2010].

"During the 1st 5 months last year [2009], there were 2431 cases, and
7 people died from dengue fever," he said. "So if we compare, we can
see that although the number of cases this year [2010] is lower, the
percentage of deaths is higher than last year [2009]."

In all of last year [2009], there were 11 699 cases and 38 deaths
recorded, with the disease most prevalent in the capital and in
Kampong Cham, Kandal, Siem Reap, and Banteay Meanchey provinces.

The mosquito-borne infection spreads more rapidly in June, July, and
August, Ngan Chantha said.

Officials plan to distribute 102 tonnes of abate -- a mosquito
larvicide -- as part of this year's [2010] anti-dengue campaign, he

"I suggest that all people be vigilant in trying to prevent dengue
fever, because mosquitoes are everywhere and bite us any time we are
careless," he said.

By way of treatment [prevention] tips, he suggested wearing long
trousers and long-sleeve shirts, using abate, and seeking speedy
treatment for anyone exhibiting symptoms of dengue.

[Byline: Mom Khunthear]

Communicated by:

[According to the newswire above, the number of cases of dengue fever
in Cambodia between January and May 2010 is 1111 and 7 deaths, whereas
the number of cases during the same period in 2009 was 2431 and 7
deaths. Although there is a decrease in the number of dengue cases in
2010 compared to 2009, the case fatality rate (CFR) has been higher in
2010 (0.63) than in 2009 (0.29).

The total number of dengue fever cases in 2009 was 11 699 cases and 38
deaths; 9245 cases and 65 deaths in 2008; and 39 851 cases and 407
deaths in 2007 (see prior PRO/MBDS posting Dengue - Cambodia

According to the number of reported cases of dengue fever and dengue
hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) in the Western Pacific region by country
from WHO's Regional Office for the Western Pacific (WHO/WPRO) dated 30
Mar 2010 (available at
), there were 278
cases and 2 deaths of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever
(DHF) in Cambodia in the 1st 3 months of 2010, with a CFR 0.72.

For a map of Cambodia with provinces, see
For the interactive HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Cambodia see
. - Mod.SCM]

[7] Philippines (Mountain province)
Date: Tue 15 Jun 2010
Source: Chen QI [edited]

Last week [week of 7 Jun 2010] in Bontoc, 2 girls stricken with dengue
passed away, prompting provincial health officials to raise over the
weekend [12-13 Jun 2010] a heightened alert for the dreaded
mosquito-borne disease [virus]. The Provincial Health Office (PHO) [in
Bontoc] said that one was a 7-year-old girl from Barangay Samoki, this
town, while the other was a 13-year-old girl from Barangay Lanao, same

In raising the dengue alert in this province, the PHO cited an
increase by 87 percent in the number of cases of the disease this year
[2010] compared to last year [2009]. Bontoc General Hospital officials
revealed yesterday [14 Jun 2010] that the medical facility was packed
with suspected dengue patients.

During the dry months aggravated by El Nino, the PHO warned residents
against storing water that could be the breeding ground of
dengue-causing [virus carrying] mosquitoes. This time, residents are
being warned against allowing rainwater to settle in puddles and other
household stuff that could hold water as these are the favorite places
for mosquitoes to lay their eggs.

Communicated by:

[A map showing the location of Bontoc in the Mountain Province can be
accessed at
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of the Philippines can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[8] India (Kerala)
Date: Sun 20 Jun 2010
Source: AsianetIndia [edited]

One person has died of dengue fever in Kozhikode district today [20
Jun 2010]. The deceased has been identified as a resident of Meppayoor
and is a school teacher. The number of fever-affected patients in the
State is increasing day by day, the death toll is also increasing.

Communicated by:

[It is not clear from this report how many individuals have been
reported as dengue cases or if this constitutes an outbreak or just
scattered cases.

A map showing the location of Kozhikode district in Kerala can be accessed at
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of India can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[see also:
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (28) 20100618.2043
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (27) 20100616.2009
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (26) 20100607.1903
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (25) 20100601.1821
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (24) 20100524.1722
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (23) 20100517.1620
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (22) 20100510.1528
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (21) 20100503.1439
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (20) 20100426.1347
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (19) 20100420.1279
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (18) 20100412.1190
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (17) 20100405.1094
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (16) 20100329.0982
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (15) 20100323.0922
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (14) 20100322.0910
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (13) 20100316.0840
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (12) 20100315.0835
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (11) 20100308.0753
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (10) 20100304.0707
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (09) 20100302.0685
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (08) 20100222.0597
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (07) 20100216.0537
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (06) 20100208.0426
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (05) 20100201.0346
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (04) 20100125.0277
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (03) 20100119.0211
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (02) 20100111.0131
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (01) 20100104.0038]
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